For explanation of problems related to Kubicek's TEB equation and how Sramek's equation resolves these problems, read:
Bernstein DP. Noninvasive Cardiac Output Measurement. Textbook of Critical Care, 2nd Ed.1989 (Saunders): 159-185

Spinale FG, et al. Comparison of bioimpedance and thermodilution methods for determining cardiac output: Experimental and clinical studies. Ann Thorac Surg 1988;45:421-425

Goli VD, et al. Noninvasive evaluation of aortic stenosis severity utilizing Doppler ultrasound and electrical bioimpedance. J Am Col Cardiol 1988;II:66-71

Bernstein DP, et al. Continuous noninvasive real-time monitoring of stroke volume and cardiac output by thoracic electrical bioimpedance. Crit Care Med 1986;14:898-901

Mattar J, et al. A clinical comparison between cardiac output measured by thermodilution versus noninvasive thoracic electrical bioimpedance. Acute Care 1986;12:58-60

Capan LM, et al. Measurement of ejection fraction by bioimpedance. Crit Care Med 1987; 15:402

Shoemaker WC, et al. Multicomponent noninvasive physiologic monitoring of circulatory function. Crit Care Med 1988;16:482-490

Prasad R, et al. A three-way comparison between Doppler, bioimpedance and invasive indices of left ventricular function. Am Fed for Clin Res 1986;34;1

Rowland TW, et al. Thoracic bioimpedance measurement of cardiac response to maximal cycle exercise. J Cardiopulm Rehab 1989;9:311-315

Bernstein DP. New stroke volume equation for thoracic electrical bioimpedance: Theory and rationale. Crit Care Med 1986;15:904-909

McKinley DF, et al. A comparison of thoracic bioimpedance to thermodilution cardiac output in critically ill children. Crit Care Med 1987;5:358

Appel PL, et al. Evaluation of a continuous, on-line real-time noninvasive cardiac output and ejection fraction in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 1987;15:364

Shellock FG, et al. Cardiac output in critically ill patients by a new noninvasive bioimpedance system: Comparison with the thermodilution method. The Physiologist 1987;30:215

Colace F, et al. Comparison between a new impedance cardiography method and thermodilution in the measurement of cardiac output. Off Acts of XIII Europ Congr on Noninv Cardiovasc Dynamics 1985:683-686

Lax A, et al. Non-invasive determination of cardiac output: Comparison of a new method of impedance cardiography and echocardiographic measurements. Off Acts of XIII Europ Congr on Noninv Cardiovasc Dynamics 1985:244-247

Wong DH, et al. Noninvasive cardiac output: Simultaneous comparisons of two methods with thermodilution. J Clin Monitor 1988;4:163-164

Saunders CE. Use of transthoracic electrical bioimpedance in assessing thoracic fluid status in emergency department patients. Am J Emerg Med 1988;6:337-340

Aupetit JF, et al. Measurement of cardiac output by a new non-invasive bioimpedance system: Comparison with the Fick method. J Europ Soc of Card 1988:9:332

Hanna L, et al. Noninvasive ejection fraction monitoring: A comparison of the impedance method to the radionuclide cardiography. Anesth 1988;69:A308

Belik J, et al. Thoracic electrical bioimpedance measurement of cardiac output in the newborn infant. J Pediatr 1988;113:890-895

Saladin V, et al. Comparison of cardiac output estimation by thoracic electrical bioimpedance, thermodilution and Fick methods. Crit Care Med 1988;16:1157-1158

Wong DH, et al. Changes in cardiac output after acute blood loss and position change in man. Crit Care Med 1989;17:979-983

Introna RPS, et al. Use of transthoracic bioimpedance to determine cardiac output in pediatric patients. Crit Care Med 1988;16:1101-1105

Haljame H, et al. Influence of preoperative fluid regime on hemodynamic stability and leg blood flow in vascular surgical patients during epidural anesthesia. Reg Anesth 1988;13;25:3

Appel PL, et al. Noninvasive monitoring systems for acute care. Anesth 1988:43-46

Klocke RK, et al. Continuous noninvasive real-time monitoring of cardiac output by means of the new beat-to-beat bioimpedance. Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin 1989;26:161-167

Castor G, et al. Measurement of cardiac output with the aid of noninvasive electrical bioimpedance in comparison with the thermodilution method. Anaesthesiologie und Intesivmedizin 1988:339-344

Lopez-Saucedo A, et al. Feasibility of noninvasive physiologic monitoring in resuscitation of trauma patients in the emergency department. Crit Care Med 1989;17:567-568

Lin H, et al. Thoracic fluid index in normal adult and patients with different type of chest disease. Chin Med J 1988;42:191-196

Mattar JA, et al. Noninvasive cardiac output determination by thoracic electrical bioimpedance. Int & Crit Care Digest 1988;7:14-17

Wong DH, et al. Thoracic bioimpedance and Doppler cardiac output measurement: Learning curve and interobserver reproducibility. Crit Care Med 1989;17:1194-1198

Wong DH, et al. Noninvasive cardiac output: Simultaneous comparison of two different methods with thermodilution. J Anesth 1990;72:4-12

Appel P, et al. Comparison of measurements of cardiac output by bioimpedance and thermodilution in severely ill surgical patients. Crit Care Med 1986;14:933-935

Klocke RK, et al. Noninvasive assessment of hemodynamics in patients with different pacemaker functions using bioimpedance. Pac Therap and Electrophys 1990;1:18-26

Castor G, et al. Determination of cardiac output during positive end-expiratory pressure: Noninvasive electrical bioimpedance compared with standard thermodilution. Crit Care Med 1990;18:544-546

Cox C, et al. Continuous measurement of cardiac output by impedance cardiography during submaximal exercise. B J Clin Pharm 1989;28:227-228

Huang KC, et al. Stroke volume measurements by electrical bioimpedance and echocardiography in healthy volunteers. Crit Care Med 1990;18;11:1274-1278

Jivegard L, et al. Cardiac output in patients with acute lower limb ischaemia of presumed embolic origin - a predictor of severity of outcome? Eur J Surg 1990;4:401-407

Clancy VT, et al. Cardiac output measurement in critical care patients: Thoracic electrical bioimpedance versus thermodilution. J of Trauma 1991;31;8

Lumb PD. Noninvasive cardiac output. Perspectives in Crit Care 1988;1:45-59

Sramek BB. Hemodynamic and pump-performance monitoring by electrical bioimpedance: New concepts. Problems in Resp Care 1989;2:274-290 (JB Lippincott Co)

Sramek BB. Thoracic electrical bioimpedance: Basic principles and physiologic relations. Noninvas Cardiology 1994;3(2):83-88.

Faini A. et al. Cardiac index assessment: Validation of a new non-invasive very low current thoracic bioimpedance device by thermodilution. Blood Pressure, 2013; Early Online: 17



Tremper KK, et al. Continuous noninvasive estimation of cardiac output by electrical bioimpedance: An experimental study in dogs. Crit Care Med 1986;14:231-233

Spinale FG, et al. Non-invasive estimation of extravascular lung water. J Invest Surg 1988; 47:1-6

Spinale FG, et al. Relationship of Bioimpedance to thermodilution and echocardiographic measurements of cardiac function. Crit Care Med 1990;18:414-418

Jivegard L, et al. Cardiac output determination in the pig - Thoracic electrical bioimpedance versus thermodilution. Crit Care Med 1990;18:995-998